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Changing the Hidden Rules - An Excel Template for Discussing Soccer’s Competitive Balance

Joaquim Teixeira, Nuno Santos, Paulo Mourao


We constructed a (Microsoft Excel) Template for simulating the final tables of soccer leagues. In our Template, the user can insert different values for parameters that influence the soccer leagues (such as the importance of the sports history of each competing team, the influence of home ad-vantages, or the relevance of the referees’ decisions). The user is also able to choose among dif-ferent systems of points awarded for victory. Then, the Template produces an index for the competitive balance of the entire league. We tested several combinations of parameters and concluded that the most balanced leagues are characterized by rewarding victory with 1 point and draws with 0 point and when the influence of the teams’ history or budget is minimized.


Simulator; Template; Soccer

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