Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Expectation-Maximization Based Parameter Identification for HMM of Urban Traffic Flow

Herman Y. Sutarto, Endra Joelianto


This paper concerns on modeling of traffic flow as a hybrid approach that combines continuous and discrete dynamics in a system. The model is chosen as simple as possible such as a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Traffic flow can be classified into two-states and switching between two states controlled by first-order Markov chain with a certain probability. The model is characterized by several Gaussian parameters and estimated by using Expectation-Maximization (EM) technique. Actual traffic flow data on City of Jakarta and Bandung is used to model through EM estimation parameter and to validate the results by using particle filter. The results confirm that the proposed model gives satisfactory results which capture the variation of traffic flow. This work is easily extended to Jump Markov Model as a more general model especially relating to the development of traffic control design based upon queue length.


Hybrid system, expectation maximization, parameter estimation, intelligent transportation system, particle filter.

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Disclaimer/Regarding indexing issue:

We have provided the online access of all issues and papers to the indexing agencies (as given on journal web site). It’s depend on indexing agencies when, how and what manner they can index or not. Hence, we like to inform that on the basis of earlier indexing, we can’t predict the today or future indexing policy of third party (i.e. indexing agencies) as they have right to discontinue any journal at any time without prior information to the journal. So, please neither sends any question nor expects any answer from us on the behalf of third party i.e. indexing agencies.Hence, we will not issue any certificate or letter for indexing issue. Our role is just to provide the online access to them. So we do properly this and one can visit indexing agencies website to get the authentic information.